Die vorming van Geestelike leierskap vir Gemeentelike Bediening in die Suider-Afrikaanse Konteks

Written by Frederick on . Posted in GKS

 

2.    Die behoefte aan ‘n fokus op die vorming van geestelike leierskap vir gemeentelike bediening in die SA konteks
In die diskoers rondom teologiese opleiding neem die belangrikheid van ‘n fokus op karaktervorming van die student met ‘n fokus op gemeentelike bediening, toe. In 1999 skryf Robert Banks: “While most seminary teachers recognize that moral and spiritual formation begins at home and congregations, and continues in other contexts alongside seminaries, and develops afterwards in various ministry settings, there is ‘n growing concern that it must be an intentional part of seminary training, both inside and outside the classroom” (1999, 25).
Die dringendheid van hierdie saak vir denominasies waar studente aan universiteite opgelei word, is beklemtoon in ‘n onlangse studie deur Marilyn Naidoo oor die geestelike vorming van studente. Sy kom tot die volgende gevolgtrekking:
On the other end of the spectrum, the institutions with the highest scores (showing lower agreement with the spiritual formation) for all five factors were the Presbyterian and Reformed. Both denominations train in a university faculty and this formational mandate may clash with the focus of critical scholarship offered at universities. This finding highlights that a university setting presents more challenges in implementing a spiritual formational mandate. It would be difficult to seek to instil a specific habitus among theology students in a university classroom where similar ecclesial backgrounds or at least shared vocational trajectories cannot be assumed. The intention of spiritual formation may also be obscured by university accredit¬ation demands, the compartmentalization of theological disciplines and the marginalization of spirituality in die life van die university.
(‘n Empiriese studie oor geestelike vorming by Protestantse teologiese opleidingsinstansies in Suid-Afrika, aanvaar vir publikasie in Theology and Religion.)

Western Seminary in Michigan, VSA, het op hierdie behoefte gereageer met ‘n program getiteld Formation for Ministry (Vorming vir Bediening). Die VGK se eie beleidsdokument van 1997 oor teologiese opleiding, stel die doel van teologiese opleiding soos volg “…(is) om kandidate geestelik, intellektueel en prakties te vorm en toe te rus vir hulle diens in die kerk van Jesus Christus” (Acta 1997:718ff). In 2008 word bedieningsvorming eksplisiet omskryf: “Ministry formation, under die guidance of the Holy Spirit and for the glory of God, shapes leaders within URCSA by equipping them spiritually, intellectually and practically to serve the coming of the Kingdom of God in Southern Africa” (P 513 van Agenda). In the comprehensive work about theological training by Charles Foster et al., one of the distinctive challenges of clergy education is viewed as “The Pedagogy of Formation” (2006, pp100-127).

Daar is min twyfel dat die vormingsaspekte van teologiese opleiding sentraal behoort te staan in ‘n visie vir kerklike  bedieningsvorming. Dit sal die deurlopende tema en doel wees van die aanbevelings in hierdie memorandum.

3.    Die onderskeid tussen akademiese en kerklike vorming
Die memorandum lewer ‘n pleidooi dat ons beide akademiese opleiding én geestelike vorming in ‘n interafhanklike maar kreatiewe spanning met mekaar handhaaf.

Om hierdie spanning te verstaan, moet ons die onderskeid tussen akademiese opleiding en  bedieningsvorming, uitklaar.

•    Die kerklike bedieningsvorming van studente konsentreer veral op die vorming van geestelike leierskap binne die konteks van gemeentelike bediening. (Die voorstel is dat hierdie fokus toegepas word deur ‘n VGK- en NGK-Seminarie of ‘n Skool van Gereformeerde Teologie.)

•    Die akademiese opleiding van die Fakulteit Teologie volg ‘n ensiklopediese benadering wat aan studente akademiese opleiding bied in die verskillende teologiese dissiplines (Fakulteit Teologie).

Hierdie twee vormingsmodi behoort as komplimentêr beskou te word. Die akademiese opleiding van die Fakulteit voorsien die “boustene” vir die vorming van gemeentelike predikante in die SA-konteks en behoort in sinergie met  kerklike vorming ontplooi te word. Aan die ander kant sal die Seminarie se vormingsprosesse daartoe bydra om studente in staat te stel om hulle akademiese opleiding te optimaliseer. Die ideaal sou wees dat ‘n student gelyktydig geregistreer is by die Seminarie vir ‘n “Diploma in Kerklike  Leierskapsvorming” en by die Fakulteit Teologie vir akademiese kwalifikasies (BTh en MDiv).

4.    Kerklike vorming as ‘n Reis
a.    ‘n Vormende reis met mylpale:
Kerklike opleiding is die vorming van geestelike leierskap met ‘n fokus op gemeentelike bediening. In hierdie vormingsprogram onderneem die student ‘n “reis” met verskillende mylpale wat interafhanklike areas afbaken. Die reis word onderneem binne die konteks van ‘n gemeenskap van ondersteunende verhoudings, soos hieronder verduidelik word. Die program sal gemeet word volgens die behoeftes van die verskillende kerke vir aanvullende teologiese opleiding, wat byvoorbeeld die 100-uur riglyn van die VGK insluit.

Mylpaal 1: Roepingsontwikkelingplan

1.    Persoonlike volwassenheid en emosionele intelligensie: Tydens die eerste jaar voltooi studente ‘n reeks psigometriese toetse om insig in hul persoonlike samestelling te verdiep en om areas te identifiseer wat ontwikkel  kan word.

    Hierdie insigte word deurgevoer na vormings-, en indien nodig, terapeutiese prosesse, om die student se kapasiteit vir persoonlike groei en verrykte emosionele intelligensie uit te bou.

2.    Roepingsvorming: Tydens die eerste jaar neem studente deel aan ‘n Roepings-retrait, met die doel om hulle ‘n sin vir roepingssidentiteit te help ontwikkel. Die retrait dien ook as beginpunt vir ‘n voortgesette reis van roepingsontwikkeling deur die loop van die hele program.

3.    Geestelike vorming: Alle jaargroepe neem jaarliks deel aan ‘n gefokusde program van geestelike vorming waarin geestelike dissiplines in groepe beoefen word, onder toesig van ‘n geestelike mentor. Hierdie 100 dae van geestelike vormingsseisoene eindig elke jaar met Paasfees. In hierdie program word basiese geloofsvormingsgewoontes beoefen en bemeester. Die moontlikheid van ‘n weeklikse Seminarie-Eucharistie, waar studente en dosente saam Nagmaal vier as ‘n geloofsgemeenskap in die Seminarie-Kapél, kan ook oorweeg word.

Die persoonlike, geestelike en roepingsvormingsprogramme van die eerste twee jaar bied aan die student die inligting en vaardighede om ‘n Persoonlike Roepingsontwikkelingplan te ontwikkel. Die ontwikkeling en voorlegging van so ‘n ontwikkelingsplan geskied onder leiding van die Ondersteuningskomitee van elke student. Die plan word voorgelê vir goedkeuring teen die einde van die tweede jaar.

Mylpaal 2: CREDO

1.    Identifisering met gereformeerde teologie en tradisie: Kerklike opleiding het ten doel om studente te skool om te identifiseer met die gereformeerde teologie en ‘n tuiskoms in die gereformeerde kerktradisie. Dit sluit in kennis van die inhoud en geskiedenis van die vier Belydenisse van die twee kerke.

2.    Bybel/teologiese integrasie en die vorming van ‘n eie teologiese taal  wat toepaslik is die konteks: Die Fakulteit dra verantwoordelikheid vir die professionele akademiese opleiding van studente. Kerklike opleiding is gefokus op die integrasie van hierdie kennis met ‘n eie “taal”. Geestelike leiers moet in staat wees om ‘n boodskap te formuleer met hulle eie geloofs- en teologiese taal. Daarvoor benodig hulle ‘n begrip vir die “plot” van die Evangelie en moet hulle dit kan assimileer in ‘n taal en leefstyl.  
In die strewe na hierdie ontwikkeling moet elke student ‘n CREDO skryf waarin hulle akademiese kennis geartikuleer word in hulle eie persoonlike teologiese taal. Die CREDO moet voorgelê word vir goedkeuring aan die einde van die vierde jaar. Die ontwerp van die CREDO is nie ‘n werkstuk wat met verwysings na akademiese bronne opgestel word nie, maar eerder ‘n uitdrukking wat die student se ervaring in die bediening in eie persoonlike teologiese taal verwoord.

    Mylpaal 3: Persoonlike bemeestering van bedieningsvaardighede
Daar word deurlopend aandag gegee aan die praktyk en bemeestering van basiese bedieningsvaardighede. Die gemeente en mentor aan wie ‘n student toegewys is, doen verslag oor die student se ontwikkeling en bemeestering van hierdie basiese vaardighede. Die huidige program van denominasionele opleiding en die studente se eie beroepsontwikkelingsplan sal rigtinggewend wees aan die omvang van hierdie vaardighede. Dit sal die huidige program van bepaalde “weke” vir denominasionele opleiding omvorm tot ‘n meer deurlopende praktyk van bedieningsvaardighede en lei tot ‘n program van persoonlike bemeestering.

    Mylpaal 4: Ontwikkeling van ‘n nuwe missionale bediening

Kontekstuele en missionale bedieningskapasiteit: Die vorming van geestelike leierskap vereis ook dat studente die vermoë ontwikkel om hulle kontekste met oordeel te lees en in die nadenke daaroor  koninkryksgeleenthede te onderskei. Dit beteken dat hulle deeglike blootstelling aan die SA konteks sal moet kry, en dit met insig geloofsonderskeidend te kan analiseer. In die vyfde en sesde jare identifiseer studente ‘n “koninkryksgeleentheid” in die konteks. Tydens dié twee jare ontwikkel hulle ‘n nuwe bediening op so ‘n wyse dat die projek daarna onafhanklik kan voortgaan. Hierdie bedieningsontwikkeling mag nie slegs die handhawing van ‘n bestaande bediening in die gemeente wees nie, maar moet die vestiging van ‘n nuwe bediening behels. (In die MBA-omgewing byvoorbeeld, word studente aangemoedig om ‘n “new start-up” te ontwikkel.) Die verslag hieroor moet voorgelê word vir goedkeuring aan die einde van die sesde jaar vir NGK-studente en aan die einde van die vyfde jaar vir VGK-studente. Dit moet beskou word as die “sluitsteen” of voltooiingsprojek wat die vormingsprogram as geheel afsluit en integreer, soos by Northern Theological Seminary.

b.    Die Reis van Bedieningsvorming vind plaas binne ‘n gemeenskap van onder-steunende verhoudings

Vorming vind primêr plaas in vertrouensverhoudings. Met verloop van die vorming van geestelike leierskap ontwikkel die student die volgende verhoudings:

•    Gemeentes: Elke student is word geplaas by  ‘n gemeente. Fakulteitswerk diensleer-werkstukke kan ook in hierdie gemeentes gedoen word. Die gemeentes verskaf die basiese konteks waarin geestelike leierskap ontstaan en gevorm word. Die Seminarie onderhandel met gemeentes om te funksioneer as opleidingsgemeentes, soos daar onderwyshospitale is vir mediese opleiding.
•    Mentors: Elke student word toegesê aan ‘n predikant of kerkleier wat optree as mentor en met wie hy/sy gereeld, verkieslik weekliks, konsulteer.
•    Dosenterade: Dosente wat op Rade van die VGK/NGK dien, skakel ook met studente.
•    Medestudente: Studente ondersteun mekaar in ondersteuningsgroepe. Hierdie groepe is ook aktief tydens die 100 dae van geloofsvorming.
•    Ondersteuningskomitees: Elke student het ‘n ondersteuningskomitee wat bestaan uit sy/haar mentor, ‘n fakulteitsdosent, ‘n medestudent en ‘n uitvoerende lid van die Seminarie. Die komitee vergader een maal per kwartaal om die student se vordering te bespreek in terme van die mylpale.

c.    Aanspreeklikheid van die student

Studente is aanspreeklik vir hulle eie ontwikkeling in die nastrewe van hierdie mylpale – met die ondersteuning van bogenoemde verhoudings.

5. ‘n Seminarie vir Bedieningsvorming
Kerklike vorming behoort institusioneel opgeneem te wees binne ‘n “seminarie” wat die kerk se tradisies, ritmes en uitkomstes beliggaam. Die aanbeveling is dat die “Kweekskool” “her”-stig word volgens die voorbeeld van die Northern Theological Seminary van die VGK in Pretoria. So ‘n Seminarie sou funksioneer as ‘n kerklike-instituut onder supervisie van die Kuratoria van die VGK en NGK en akademies geakkrediteer word met die Fakulteit Teologie in ‘n Skool van Gereformeerde Teologie (waarvoor die Fakulteitsregulasies voorsiening maak). Die Seminarie behoort méér te wees as ‘n administratiewe skakel tussen die denominasie en die studente. Dit moet ‘n ruimte wees vir vorming. Die bedienings¬vorming wat hierdie memorandum voorsien, kan nie plaasvind in ‘n administratiewe verhouding met studente nie. Die studente moet geborge en veilig voel voordat sulke vorming kan plaasvind.
Die Kuratoria dien as bestuursliggaam van die Seminarie en stel “personeellede” aan vir die Seminarie:
Die “personeel” van die Seminarie kan die volgende rolspelers behels:
•    Die Kuratoria skakel met predikante in sinodale diens en/of gemeente-predikante omtrent dienslewering in die Seminarie in ‘n deeltydse hoedanigheid.
•    “Opleidingsgemeentes” word geïdentifiseer en gekontrakteer om as konteks te dien vir bedieningsvorming.
•    Mentors word opgelei en gekoöpteer.
•    Administratiewe personeel van die Kuratoria bied bestuurs- en administratiewe dienste aan die Seminarie.

6.    Moontlike volgende stappe
•    Die Kuratoria oorweeg, verbeter en keur die memorandum as ‘n raamwerk vir die implementering van die program vir Aanvullende Denominasionele Opleiding.
•    Die Kuratoria stel ‘n taakspan aan om die aanbevelings te implementeer en terug te rapporteer aan die Uitvoerende Komitees van die Kuratoria.
•    Die Seminarie word gestig in November 2011 tydens ‘n gesamentlike sitting van die Kuratoria
•    Eerste studente registreer by die Seminarie: Januarie 2012

 

Bibliografie:
Banks, Robert, Reenvisioning Teologiese Opleiding, Eerdmans 1999
Foster, Charles R (ed), Educating Clergy, Jossey-Bass 2006
Naidoo, Marilyn, An empirical study on spiritual formation at Protestant theological training institutions in South Africa (goedgekeurde artikel vir publikasie in Religion en Theology)
Western Theological Seminary, Formation for Ministry

Hou op om Jesus te bemark

Written by webmeester on . Posted in Evangelisasie

This process is one that is slower, more strategic and much more vulnerable than the long-standing “pound-the-phones” model, which is one of the reasons many older businesses don’t see the point in adapting. The outcome, however, yields something far more impactful and sustainable than a 10 percent response rate (a generous average for positive customer reaction to direct sales). When people feel deeply connected to a brand and they feel a sense of community and belonging in relation to it and others, when their voice feels truly heard and they have the freedom to ask questions and affect the future outcome, the byproduct is boundless brand loyalty.

Slegte redes om ‘n kerk te plant

Written by webmeester on . Posted in Kerkplanting

The church doesn’t need you to reinvent it. God may lead you to do ministry a little differently (though almost all of the “new, fresh, casual, relevant” churches tend to look exactly alike), but that is not a reason to plant a church. The church is not a canvas for you to express your individuality. The church is God’s idea and he’ll let you know when it needs to be reinvented.

Hoe om mense kerk toe te nooi

Written by webmeester on . Posted in Evangelisasie

Charles Arn has surveyed thousands of people: (Source: 3 Questions for Charles Arn)

In your research, have you found that there’s one specific reason that visitors come to church?

The friendship factor.

We’ve asked more than 50,000 people over the last 10 years why they came to church, and between 75 and 90 percent of respondents say, “I began attending because someone invited me.”

Charles Arn

In an earlier study, people came to church through the following forms of contact:

  • 2% by Advertisement
  • 6% by the Pastoral Invitation
  • 6% by organized evangelism campaign
  • 86% by friends or relatives (Source:The Inviting Church)

Did you know

  • One study found 37% of Christians linked their conversion to being invited to church (Johnson, p. 91, citing a 2003 study)
  • Martha Grace Reese’s work showed 40% who joined first came because a friend invited.

But only 2% of church people invite an unchurched person to church? (Thom Ranier, 2003).

Can we change that, particularly as Easter approaches?

Praying to Invite Visitors.

Recently, I listened to Church Talk Radio and they had a brief 5 minute segment on praying your work in inviting people to church.  I added the last four.

  1. Pray for your potential Guests (see How to Make a Prayer List of Friends)
  2. Pray for the opportunity to arise to invite them to Church
  3. Pray for awareness of their need (See What is Spiritual Thirst?)
  4. Pray for awareness of the opportunity
  5. Pray for the courage to invite them to church.
  6. Pray for favor that they would accept the invitation.
  7. Pray they would follow through and come.
  8. Pray that your church would welcome them.
  9. Pray that the message and worship would be awe-inspiring (See 2 Things Grow a Church)
  10. Pray that they would hear the message and grow one step closer to God.

Lees HIER meer oor Evangelism Coach.

Kerkplanters is nie Kannibale nie – Die Lukas-10 Projek

Written by webmeester on . Posted in Kerkplanting

This has been the modus operandi since the break up of Christendom. It began with the protestants telling the Catholics that they had lost justification by faith. Then the holiness/pietist churches told the established Reformer protestants they had lost the deeper sanctified life of God’s people. In N. America, we started Bible churches when the liberals took over mainline Protestantism in the 1920’s. They had lost the authority of the Bible. In the 1980’s we started seeker churches when the Bible churches became too entrenched in their own Bible speak and Bible rituals that they can no longer make sense to lapsed Baby Boomer Christians. They had lost their ability to speak the gospel in relevant ways. In the last fifteen years, we started progressive “Emergent” churches when the seeker churches become consumeristic and distanced from challenging injustice in the world. They had lost their ability to engage the world for God’s justice. And on and on it goes. We organize ourselves against what the other people aren’t.

One of the points of The End of Evangelicalism? is that we’ve reached the end of  this long history.  We can no longer expect to successfully cannibalize on ourselves in the planting of new churches. We’re running out of Christians/churches to reform to some truer, purer more relevant form of Christianity. As I said here, lets stop funding church plants (has anyone noticed it ain’t working?) and fund missionaries here in North America. We need to seed fresh expressions of the gospel that engage those outside the faith with the gospel and create the space for God work to bring people to Himself.

With this in mind, I’ve been working on a framework to fund and nurture missionary church planting in North America. I am doing this in partnership with Ecclesia Network and Fresh Expressions here in the United States. What I sketch below is a starting point for this effort.  I put this framework out there as a starting point to invite people to let me know how they would change it/develop it (in the comments). If you’re candidate to participate in the program, either through funding it, partnering with it (say if you are a denomination), or being an actual missionary in the program, let me know through e-mail and I’ll keep you up to date on opportunities, and set up meetings when we can.

So here goes! My first shot at laying out a structure for the Luke 10 Project!

Luke 10 Project

THE GOAL

We seek to plant missionary communities/new expressions of the gospel in North America. We desire to plant missionary communities. Over against the patterns of the post WW2 years of franchise church planting where churches were either competitive, ordered towards extending a particular brand/denomination of church, or revising the church for relevancy, ALL OF WHICH CATERS TO ALREADY EXISTING CHRISTIANS, we propose to embed missionaries to plant churches that will reach people outside of Christ with the gospel of the Kingdom. We believe all people are ultimately lost until they are reconciled to God and living their lives as life with God and His mission.

WHAT WE DO

Plant three leaders/leader couples in a context. These leaders will know each other (their respective gifts/callings and how they work in complementarity). They will know how to submit to Christ through submitting to each other as a model for discerning life with God in His Kingdom. These leaders will understand the basics of ecclesiology, gathering a people into the Kingdom as a witness to the context.

Give them two years – of housing stipend and health insurance. They will be coached to get a job that can sustain them within this context for the long haul. Yet, with this aid, they can afford to go into a lower paying status where they can learn a skill, grow with the job and become indispensible with their skill. In two years they will be viable, sustainable without any further support. The goal is not to have a financially self-sustaining church organization in 3 years. The goal is to have 3 financially sustainable missionaries/missionary couples inhabiting a context in 2 years.

These leaders will then do the following:

  • Exegete/get to know relationally the nooks and crannies of this context. Listen. Get to know people. Get to know where the third places are. Get to know where the hurts are. They will be immersed in a context as a rhythm of everyday life.
  • Begin Rhythms of Inhabiting – strategies of living life with intentional inhabiting of third places, places of ministry (like hospitals, food sites. Etc.)
  • Begin Rhythms of Mission: Having located places of hurt, or third places, we will join in. We shall be prepared to proclaim the gospel when the Spirit leads. This could take years.
  • Begin a Rhythm of discipleship: We will cultivate a discipleship practice among us.  We will work with, contextualize the discipleship shapes of Mike Breen and the missional practices of David Fitch, as well as other sources and means of developing a discipleship culture.
  • Begin Rhythms Together: of prayer, gathering for worship/eucharist/ sending, discipleship pods, acts of mission engagement all as part of a way of life.
  • Start to Gather and Relate: These three leaders will be getting to know other church leaders in the contexts so as to work in concert with them. We seek a renewal of the church as a whole. There will be those who have left church because of its hollow shell. We shall call them back into the Kingdom. There will be people who go to other churches. We refuse, SIMPLY REFUSE, to take them from their church home. But we will invite them to join in with us in Kingdom living in the neighborhood. There will be many outside the gospel who we will invite to join in with various mission engagements we are doing.

I firmly believe that all of the above is to be carried out as a sustainable way of life, not as an excessive work of human effort that consumes and destroys people’s lives. Each leader is to order his/her life so that he/she can work a job of 35 hours a week, and give 15 hours of labor to the cultivation of the Kingdom as everyday life in the context (see my post on the 15 hour rule)

Commit to This Place for Ten Years I firmly believe, if we put three leaders/leader couples in one place, committed to a context for ten years, there will be a fresh expression of the gospel in this locale until the Kingdom is consummated in Christ’s return.

PRINCIPLES

1.) We Work With All Denominations For the Renewal of the Church of Jesus Christ in North America

We will work with all Christian denominations for “evangelical renewal.” By evangelical we do not mean traditional mainline evangelicalism. We mean a vital commitment to the gospel, the whole gospel of the Kingdom of God in Christ. This of course includes personal conversion, and the forgiveness received oin and through Christ’s sacrificial work on the cross. Yet this conversion is also a turning into what God is doing to make the whole world right, not only one’s individual relationship with God. By “evangelical” we also mean a renewal of submitting to Christ by His Spirit for a fresh expression of God’s Kingdom via planting communities in each unreached context in N America.

We seek a commitment to a.) creedal orthodoxy, b.) the inbreaking and coming reign of Christ to renew the world as made manifest among us by the Holy Spirit c.) the fresh expressions of the gospel that result. We uphold a high view of Scripture, the commitment to the gospel of Jesus Christ as Lord, the commitment to transformational salvation available to all by invitation into God’s Kingdom in Christ via reconciliation with God and all relationships through the person and work of Christ in the cross and the resurrection, d.) the commitment to the church as God’s means to bear witness to the world of God’s work to reconcile the whole worl to Himself.

2.) There must be at least Three Leaders/LeaderCouples

We seek to embed (at least) three leaders and/or leader couples in places that have need for a renewed witness to the gospel or have been previously resistant to gospel. Our belief is that if we can locate three such leaders in a context, have them committed to the context for ten years, so that they learn it, love it, engage relationally with it and begin a rhythm/way of life out of the gospel, if these same leaders cultivate/discern the Kingdom andsubmit to the Spirit and what he is doing, there will be a fresh expression of the gospel in this context in ten years.

We believe that contraints such as building a self-sustaining ministry that pays a single pastor’s entire salary plus all costs contrains true missionary work. The planting of churches via these means most often devolves into competition for other church members, competition for best religious goods and services to already existing Christians, depletes and exhausts most church planters within three years because such a model is not sustainable (in post Christendom contexts). One person cannot meet the needs that engendered from such a calling of gathered people in.

These three leaders must have a solid foundation theologically in order to stand and plant and discern God’s work in a context. Yet so often, the seminary education that gets a person to this level, trains them to go get an established position in church or try to make their entire living via the church which counteracts mission. Instead, we need to find a way to fund these leaders long term, less stress financially, as well as train them to understand bi-vocationality as a way of life that has flexibility and capability to resist the demissionalizing structures of the church.


FUNDING

To start such projects, we need funding for three plus leader/couples for

a.) housing stipend/health insurance for two years.

b.) part time theological education.

c.) Coaching/assessment for each team

d.) Theological education provided within a context for each leader/couple according to need.


Lees HIER meer oor David Fitch.