How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take it Back

Written by Frederick on . Posted in PMC Articles

Review of Life, Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take it Back  by Rushkoff

To Read more of Alan Roxburgh you can connect with his online Newsletter: Send Alan Roxburgh & Team  a mail  to roxburghmissionalnet@gmail.com
Monday, 10 August 2009 17:26 Alan Roxburgh .

I spent my summer weekend reading books and relaxing amidst the welcomed rain of the Pacific North West. We have been in a high state of alert due to fires because of the dry and very hot summer. The sound of rain was a gift that lured me to coffee and books. One of my students had sent an email recommending Rushkoff’s new book,Life, Inc. How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take it Back, because it connected with a lot of material Mark Lau Branson and I teach in our missional leadership cohort.

Dying to Live: Theology, Migration, and the Human Journey

Written by Frederick on . Posted in PMC Articles

By Daniel G. Groody, c.s.c.

Daniel G. Groody is a Roman Catholic priest, scholar, and award-winning author and film producer. He teaches at the
University of Notre Dame, where he is Assistant Professor of Theology and Director of the Center for Latino Spirituality
and Culture at the Institute for Latino Studies. He spent many years working in Latin America, particularly along the
U.S.- Mexican Border. He is also executive producer of various films and documentaries, including Strangers No Longer and
Dying to Live: A Migrant’s Journey. For more information see www.nd.edu/~dgroody or www.dyingtolive.nd.edu.

( Find this artical at https://communitas.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/REFLECT1GROODY.pdf )

Trauma and conflict as prerequisites for identity transformation –

Written by Frederick on . Posted in PMC Articles

H Jurgens Hendriks
Stellenbosch University, South Africa

Trauma and conflict as prerequisites for identity transformation –
lessons from the South African Partnership for Missional Churches


This paper researches the process of identity transformation that is taking place in mainline congrega¬tions in post-apartheid South Africa. I is a descriptive study of the growth in the South African Partnership for Missional  Churches and describes the transformation by making use of the pattern found in the Psalms: orientation-disorientation-reorientation transition,
The research will test the following hypotheses that are viewed as prerequisites for identity transformation:
† Trauma and conflict caused by new power structures in society were the necessary disorientating forces that led to a theologically-based reorientation in churches;
† The change in theological epistemology led to a new culture of doing theology (including the way church meetings are held);
† Other prerequisites for a change in identity within the Southern African scenario are: leadership, the crossing of boundaries, the art of listening to “the other” and the mystery and motivation of the movement of the Spirit of God.


The 2008 theme of the Religious Research Association on “Conflict and Renewal” (http://rra.hartsem.edu/conf2008call.htm – downloaded 09-18-2008) prompted this article. From a global perspective (Schreiter 1998:12; Friedman 2007:420-426), the Christian Church of the Western world is in decline, which leads to penetrating analyses on the reasons for the decline.  This phenomenon is juxtaposed by the growth of the non-Western church. Christianity’s centre of gravity is undeniably shifting southwards. Typically, mainline congregations are in decline in the West. 
In South Africa, the Christian Church has been growing ever since records were kept. How¬ever, whether viewed from a perspective on market-share or numerical figures, the trends indicate growth in the African Initiated Churches as well as in new, mostly Indepen¬dent and Pentecostal-charismatic Churches. Mainline churches are in decline (Hendriks 2005:88-111). 
The contextual situation of mainline churches in typical Western countries differs from those in South Africa. When typical mainline denominations in South Africa interpret the decline phenomenon they do so from a situation where trauma and conflict are very real entities and where power balances have shifted, placing the typical member of these churches in a vastly different position than that of their Western brothers and sisters. One example: most churches were racially divided and still are, but, especially in mainline congregations, there is a deliberate urge towards unification processes and multicultural congregations. Currently, the business and socio-political worlds are integrating racial groups by means of affirmative action that is supported and driven by legislation. Unemployment remains high and the gap between the rich and the poor is widening even after the new dis¬pensation came about in 1994 (http://www.csae.ox.ac.uk/resprogs/usam/default.html downloaded 09-18-2008). Thus, crime stays unacceptably high and skilled people are emi¬grating. Against the backdrop of this scenario, the natural tendency for a typical traditional Afrikaans white congregation is to keep their laager tightly closed in order to have at least one place “where you can be at home with your own people, language and friends.” The fact that quite a substantial number of congregations are moving away from this “natural” but theolo¬gically unacceptable position, begs investigation. The hypothesis is that a pro¬found theological transition process is taking place and is resulting in an identity transforma¬tion of the congregations involved. How can this be explained? 


About the Psalms, Walter Brueggemann (1986:24) says they, “…are not used in a vacuum, but in a history where we are dying and rising, and in a history where God is at work, ending our lives and making gracious new beginnings for us.” He proposes (16):
I suggest, in a simple schematic fashion, that our life of faith consists in moving with God in terms of (a) being securely oriented, (b) being painfully disoriented, and (c) being surprisingly reoriented.
This schematic design is most helpful when explaining some of the differences between North and South with regard to mainline churches and what is happening in, and to, them. The first hypothesis of this article applies:
• Trauma and conflict caused by new power structures in society were the necessary disorientating forces that led to a theologically based re-orientation in these churches.
One could mention “Nelson Mandela” and “1994” to describe the context of what we are discussing. The country and all its peoples experienced a relatively peaceful transition of political power. However, this transition changed everything. The equilibrium, power and stability experienced by most white mainline people have disappeared and disorientation has set in. Brueggemann again (1986:22):
… the lament Psalm, for all its preoccupation with the hard issue at hand, invariably calls God by name and expects a response. At this crucial point, the Psalm parts com¬pany with our newspaper evidence and most of our experience, for it is disorientation addressed to God. And in that address, something happens to the disorientation … The other movement of human life is the surprising move from disorientation to a new orientation, which is quite unlike the status quo.
We believe that this is what is happening in the hearts and lives of many South African Christians. The context has changed and has led to disorientation. In their disorientation people once again turned to God, trusted God, and experienced the strange sensation that their hearts had changed and their eyes had begun to perceive life from a new perspective. Now “the other” is viewed differently and is found to be a brother or sister. For many a profound shift in orientation is taking place. Previously, for the privi¬leged, everything was bent on preserving the status quo. After the revelations of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Tutu 1999; Krog 1998) nobody could dispute the rotten ideology on which the previous dispensation was based. This disorientation has taken the form of both confession as well as shock, because of the realities of the new dispensation that, 14 years down the road, is also very far from perfect. For many who longed for a just and peaceful society, this was the nadir of disappointment and despair. Where do we turn to now? Those who turn to God experience a mysterious new beginning, a reorientation. They are profoundly aware of their status as broken vessels, but rediscover the treasure that God, in his mercy, puts in clay jars (2 Cor 4; Barrett 2004).
Perhaps one of the most unknown realities of the difference between the West and Africa is the fact that God is a more theoretic concept in the West, while Africa’s realities force one to abandon all hope in human solutions and turn to the resources of faith that escape reason and manipulation. In Africa, faith is no theory – it’s a love affair. Although this is an extremely general statement, it is true that, by and large, God is still “feared” in Africa. For Africans, God is a reality to be reckoned with (Nürnberger 2007). This makes a difference. The West has not (not yet?) experienced the type of disorientation that so many in Africa know so well.
In South Africa, there are congregations where people live with a new attitude, a new vision and hope. These (mainline) congregations have experienced a complete change of identity. How did this happen?


3.1 The wells from which we drank
This article focuses on the work and growth of the South African Partnership of Missional Churches (SAPMC – https://www.communitas.co.za/ ).  The initiators of the SAPMC mostly worked and studied at Stellenbosch University’s Faculty of Theology and the church-related centres.  From the very outset, the leaders followed and attended the Gospel and Our Culture Movement’s work (http://www.gospel-culture.org.uk/resources.htm). Other institutions, such as Church Innovations (http://www.churchinnovations.org/) and Allelon (http://www.allelon.org/main.cfm ) are regarded as close partners with whom the SAPMC cooperate, learn from, and share research. A loose partnership exists between proponents of missional church movements on all continents.
During a 2002 sabbatical Prof Pat Keifert of the Luther Seminary / Church Innovations (St Paul’s MN, USA) introduced their work to South African pastors. A group of ten South African pastors then visited the USA to learn from the USA’s Partnership for Missional Churches (PMC). Subsequently, the SAPMC was formed with Keifert present at the first training sessions, which the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC), Uniting Reformed Church of South Africa (URCSA), and Anglican ministers attended. Members financed the movement. It grew rapidly and developed South African material and leadership. Lay leaders play an important role in both leadership and research. Prof Pat Taylor-Ellison of Church Innovations helped the SAPMC to develop research methodology, especially the practical aspects of ethnographic research and the coaching of the reading teams. In 2006, Stellenbosch Uni¬versity started an MTh program on Ministry: Missional transformation. From its inception, it was extremely popular and supported the process with research at both Master’s and Doctoral levels. The PMC movement’s leaders play an important role in the program and research.
The two most influential theologians who influenced these movements are Lesslie Newbigin (1978, 1984, 1986, 1989, 1995, 2003), the erstwhile Anglican Bishop in India who, upon his retirement in his home country, discovered that Britain was a more difficult mission field than India! He profoundly questioned the epistemological parameters of Western Theology. The missional church movement’s second father-figure is the South African missiologist, David Bosch, whose magna carta work, Transforming mission (1991), is an introductory work for Missiology scholars worldwide.

3.2 Statistics
Towards the end of 2008, 139 congregations were paying their dues of about R6000 a year to be guided through a process of missional transformation. Of these, 80% are DRC congrega¬tions with predominantly white Afrikaans speaking members; 85% of these DRC congrega¬tions are urban with only 16 in small rural towns with a single DRC congregation. The most conservative communities are rural. The remainder are 20 congregations from eight denominations. These 139 congregations who are involved in the PMC, by and large, are trendsetters and cooperate in 15 clusters spread quite evenly through South Africa and Namibia.

3.3 The discernment  journey
Significant transformation has taken place in most of the congregations that departed on the missional transformation journey. The Partnership for Missional Churches started operations in 2004. Working in close coopera¬tion with the Church Innovation Institute from St Paul’s Minneapolis, USA, it used and adapted a methodology that helped congregations to escape from the mould of the Christen¬dom paradigm. In this section, the process that guided the congregations will be described. 
 Congregations seeking a new way forward form a cluster after obtaining their respective church councils’ permission. They appoint leaders to guide them through the process. Laity play a key role, but not without their clergy’s integral involvement. The cluster of congregations then departs on a missional discernment journey of approximately three years. This journey has four phases during which they seek to build five capacities:
1 Discovery  building the capacity to listen.
2 Engagement   building the capacity to take risks.
3 Visioning  building the capacity to focus.
4 Practice and growth building the capacity to learn and grow.
The fifth capacity, that of sharing and mentoring, is built throughout the process.
Clusters meet nine times over the three-year period and these meetings have the following set of activities that form the agenda of each meeting:
• Dwelling in the Word
• Reflection on what was learned
• Learning from one another
• Function-orientated teaching
• Practising the teaching.
A few remarks to highlight key aspects of the journey:
• After each cluster event a protocol exists for getting things done and communicating / integrating what was learned into the congregational way of life.
• Throughout the journey “dwelling in the Word” plays a key role. In all the SAPMC meetings Luke 10:1-12 was repeatedly read, reflected upon and discussed. It becomes a well-trodden path that challenges one to “step out” in faith on a journey across new frontiers, being guided by scriptural / spiritual principles.
• Community plays a central role in the process. Not only do the different teams in a congregation together experience an exhilarating spiritual journey that usually has a contagious effect in a congregation, but the stories of the various congregations told at the cluster meetings lead to meaningful growth and learning, as well as the formation of strong bonds and the intensification of vocation.
• In small steps people of faith venture out of their laagers and break through cultural, class, racial, gender and language barriers. The Gospel is, and brings, good news. The experience of both this and the fact that people “on the other side” can be brothers and sisters is most enriching and fulfilling. Suddenly the “others” are no longer strangers but partners who face the same contextual realities, problems and challenges of any given society.
• Lives (and congregations), immersed in the self-indulgence of Western individualism on the one hand but, on the other, also in the trauma and conflict (insecurity) of intense socio-political transformation processes, discover community coupled with a vision of a better reality (the Kingdom of God). Love, faith and hope erupt in new experiences that lead to a transformation process.
• There is more to this journey than simply sociologically describing a process. In Africa, people are less secularised; they believe in the Triune God’s involvement and the power of the Holy Spirit (Nürnberger 2007:212-258).
A brief outline of the journey, examining what happens during the nine cluster events, will be helpful. Before the first cluster event, the leadership of the participating congregations appoint a number of committees who are entrusted with doing basic research and administrative work. The second hypothesis explains what now happens: by doing theology in a new epistemologi¬cal key, transformation takes place. Theological knowledge is not simply gained by studying texts, dogmatics or listening to sermons. A shift in focus takes place. A praxis based process focuses on the triune God. Both the Word and systematic theological teaching is drawn into a discernment process that is action based and continually reflected on. The nine cluster events illustrate this process.

3.4 The nine cluster events of the journey
Cluster event 1: This meeting focuses on how we discover God, his essence and character.  To become a missional congregation means taking part in God’s mission of redemption, restoration and reconciliation. The group discusses what God is doing or wants done, juxtaposed by the question: What is the church and its purpose? Church models are critically analysed and methods of analysing current church practices and culture are discussed. The Christendom and post-Christendom theological paradigms, as well as the role of leadership and the PMC in transition processes, are explained. In this process, discernment and innovation play crucial roles, which are also clarified. Louis Barrett’s (et al 2004) eight patterns of missional faithfulness are discussed and form a basic theological platform for all of the nine cluster meetings. Keifert (2006) describes and discusses the basic methodology. The skills of reflective listening and open, boundary-crossing discussion are fostered in this and all subsequent meetings. Reading and listening / observational tasks are given based on what was discussed at the first cluster. This will be reported on in the second cluster – a set pattern for all cluster meetings.
Two very important “research” or listening activities take place in the discovery phase. A listening team of three to six persons is appointed and trained to ask 24 people eight questions about the congregation. Eight must be active and influential “family members”; eight “inside members” – people who attend regularly but who are not very involved; and eight “outside members” who basically only use the church and its various services when required. The purpose of the ethnographic research is to understand the identity of the congregation. This is formulated in a “reading report” that, in a way, summarizes the message of the 24 ethno¬graphic interviews. The second research team does a community analysis. A missional God sends his people as servants to take care of “the problems and challenges” of this world. But, what are they? What gifts are present in the community that are addressing these problems and challenges? Where do things happen in either the congregation (first listening exercise) or in the community, in which the congregation can participate and make a difference?
Cluster event 2: This is the second discovery phase event. The reading report and feedback on tasks received at the first meeting form a substantial part of the second cluster – a pattern followed in all subsequent clusters. The congregations now discover patterns and partners – or a lack thereof – within their congregations and communities. Barrett’s (et al 2004) eight patterns of missional faithfulness are discussed against the background of the realities exposed by the listening team who interviewed the 24 people and read the scriptural passage of Luke 10:1-12. As such, the PMC is an example of corporate spiritual discernment. The concept and practice are explained and applied throughout the journey. The congregational guide summarises: Spiritual discernment is therefore a practice of belief or a way of thinking. When we think about matters we go to the Scripture again to align with Christ and choose for the cross and make it true in our lives. By listening to both the Word and their world, the cluster practises (by doing the exercise) and thus prepares for a congregational meeting where the same exercise will be repeated.
Cluster event 3: The steering team invites the church council to attend this discovery phase event at a retreat. The basic activities of listening to (i) the Word (Luke 10:1-12), (ii) the eight patterns of missional faithfulness and (iii) the World, the feedbacks of the listening research task teams take place. At this stage, a larger group is on board and more people revise the information. Now, at least three missional challenges should be identified as issues that the congregation feels God is putting on their agenda for their attention. Theoretical input on the difference between adaptive and technical change is discussed, emphasizing the captivity caused by setting up boundaries in the Christendom paradigm’s way of being church. This destroys a church spiritually because it no longer is true to its basic identity of being the missional body of Christ. Escaping this captivity opens the door to new missional challenges for which engagement teams are needed. The work and method of these teams are discussed and they are formed, trained and mentored. The cluster then works on planning a church council retreat where the question: What is God’s preferred and promised future for us as a congregation? is addressed. The process of discerning what the needs of the local community are is once again addressed. This spiral-like process of innovative listening, reflection and then moving towards engagement is, in itself, a discernment process into which more and more members of the congregation are drawn.

During the discovery phase, the process of evaluation about what a congregation has learnt is continuous. Congregations share their insight with the cluster, as well as with congregations in the community. This is called Sharing and mentorship. This phase takes about one year.
Cluster 4 is the first in the engagement phase. Feedback from congregational meetings and the church council retreat are discussed and the three missional challenges of each congrega¬tion in the cluster are shared. This cluster focuses on the engagement spiral and the plunge technique.  Now, the congregations must learn more about the people to whom they will reach out. These people have different views on life and different customs. Contact with people outside the traditional laager means involvement in a culture that could be alien to the missional congregation. They discover invisible walls between themselves and the “others” and learn how to build relationships with them. The listening plunge is then carefully planned and the engagement teams (maximum 2) are selected and trained. The first plunges are care¬fully reported and reflected upon. With the church council’s support, a mentor plays an important role in this. Communication with the congregation remains an essential element of this process.
Cluster 5 is the second meeting in the engagement phase. The missional challenges have been prioritised and engagement teams have been formed who reached out (plunged) to where the congregation believes God is sending them. Once these first plunges have taken place, the events are reported and reflected upon. What has been discovered and what are the reactions? Has a bridge community been established? If indeed so, the engagement spiral requires some low risk experimental work to be done, such as becoming involved in a community project. Communication and planning remain a vital part of the process.
Cluster 6 is the first cluster that deals with the visioning phase. A very thorough discernment-motivated feedback is undertaken to reflect on the plunges and experiments. The congrega¬tions are growing in their understanding of God’s missional character through their sustained contact with the Word of God. Their contact with the world (through plunges where boundaries are crossed) helps them to discover the walls that have been erected between themselves and the community over the years. These walls made them deaf and blind to their responsibility of being a sign, foretaste and instrument of God’s reign in the community. They now realize that the church is not a kingdom on its own, but a sign of the coming kingdom and, as such, a dream / vision is born of being used by God’s Spirit to erect signs of this coming kingdom in their midst. This vision appears in a process of constant deliberations and communication between all involved – the congregation, as well as the partners in the cluster.
Cluster 7 (the visioning phase) finalises the experiments and works towards consensus of the missional tasks / challenges that the congregation is addressing. Communication with the con¬gregation and information on the experiments, what happened and what was learned receive focused attention. At the cluster meeting, this is accompanied by juxtapositioning it with systematic theology on congregational vocation, identity and purpose. The central question: Who is God? is once again asked, coupled with questions such as: What is God doing in our church? and: What is God doing in our community? etc. Each congregation is challenged to phrase a clear congregational calling based on this dialogue between the Word and the world, both of which have been speaking to them.
Cluster 8. The report on cluster 7’s conclusions to the church council is evaluated. The church council must approve the report before it is shared with the congregation. Now, the vision can be spelled out in a tangible form. Cluster 8 is applied to do the detailed planning of reorganising or realigning the congregation’s staff and structures towards being missional and towards achieving the vision and goals. This must be covenanted with the staff of each con¬gregation in the cluster. Usually, the SAPMC supplies a consultant who leads the process in every congregation. Thereafter, a detailed long-term ministry plan (from the immediate first steps to a dream about what must be achieved 4 to 5 years hence) is documented. In this process, the eight missional patterns serve as a valuable theological grid. Once all involved in the teams – staff as well as those of the bridge community – agree to the long-term plan, the church council approves it. Now, it must be shared with the cluster-partners.
Cluster 9 takes place towards the end of a three-year journey and deals with phase four: “Exercise and grow.” At this stage, there should be consensus in each congregation on which of the eight missional patterns are basic strengths, as well as specifically focused upon, in the congregation. The missional challenges resulted in bridging communities and specific minis¬tries. The congregation has gone through a “wake-up” experience during which it was realign¬ed away from institutional self-care towards missional outreach, away from a focus on the self towards a focus on God and his agenda, which leads congregations out of their laagers. The last cluster not only revisits the theological parameters on being a missional church, but deli¬berately plans to establish a missional culture to broaden the church’s missional capacity.


The process described above indicates the point made by the third hypothesis. The importance of taking a congregation through a series of small discernment steps and exposing them to the realities of a broken world where people are suffering is undergirded and, in a sense, propel¬led by the mysterious work of the triune God. People change and congregations experience transition. The first hypothesis stated the context that, in a way, put enough pressure (in the form of risk and insecurity of specific communities) to reach out and do something in the environment in which they live. The second hypothesis formulated the importance that transi¬tion can happen only if the set patterns of thought and theological moulds of the Christendom paradigm are dismantled. Thus, a new church culture emerges.
Two remarks in closure: transition can take place only if there are leaders who dream of an alternative future. The core of the PMC leadership group was from theological seminaries and was, in a way, “fine tuned” through Master’s and Doctoral programs that addressed the issues under discussion. The case study of the SAPMC describes one such group. There are other similar groups (http://etd.rau.ac.za/theses/available/etd-06082005-124417/restricted/BylaeFinaal.pdf – downloaded 09-18-2008).
The SAPMC is about to start a research project to acquire more direct information on the questions: what, where and how much? concerning the transformation processes in these congregations and communities. What has been achieved? What must be learned if the phenomenon is scrutinized?


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World Christian Database. http://wordchristiandatabase.org/wcd/

KEY WORDS: Missional church, identity, culture, transformation, trauma and conflict. 
SLEUTELWOORDE: Missionale kerk, identiteit, kultuur, transformasie, trauma en konflik.

Primary activity of the Pastoral Missional Leader

Written by webmeester on . Posted in PMC Articles


Some of this coaching and teaching has a formal character to it; that is, pastors should regularly offer in service training and learning events.  Sometimes, this will have the pastoral doing most of the teaching, other times the pastor invites others in to teach, still other times, the pastor asks members of the staff team to teach.  However, since a missional congregation is a learning organization, a critical task for the missional leader is this formal job of creating and leading learning events.

Most of this coaching and teaching is informal in character; that is, the missional leader will walk along side those who are learning to engage in some ministry.  Or, they will invite a person along in the basic ministry engagements so more and more staff and others learn those habits.  The pastoral missional leader is always multiplying capacity.

Some time stewardship principles    

Americans are starving for time.  Or, so recent studies on how Americans experience time report.  We have found that most church staffs feel the same way.  They believe they do not have enough time to do what they must.

While we admit to having the same experience, we believe that God has given us all the time we need to do what he calls us to do.  However,  since we seldom create our to do lists on the basis of what God is calling us to do, we tend to make lists too long.  Further we ignore or forget that God has offered us eternal life and what we do between now and then is to be seen in the light of eternity.  The first act of stewardship, then, must be spiritual discernment, such planning in light of eternity and the gift of eternal life.

planning = managing our attention

Such spiritual discernment allows us to make short lists.  Short lists of things to do are the easiest way to make sure that we get things done.  The shorter the list, the more likely it will get done.  Learning to turn our spiritual discernment in to short lists is critical.

Learning to create a plan for managing our attention on our short list is the next discipline of stewardship of staff time.  And, of course, if we don’t use the plan to manage our attention, all of the above disciplines fail to bring the fruit that God intends.

Of course, there is no clearer way to see how far short of God intentions we fall than to take seriously this process of spiritual discernment regarding our time.  Such discernment always finds us making promises we cannot keep.  Such promises, make in good faith, and often in moments of inspiration and excitement often become emotional weights, guilt trips, or sources of conflict within a staff.  As a staff we will all make promises, we do not keep.  We will all have promises made to us that we counted on that will not be kept.  We can simply ignore such broken promises, pretending we are a no fault god or we can learn to how each other accountable and forgive and move on.

In the end—and I do mean our final end– our debt to time, our amounting debt of promises unkept, need to be handed over to Christ who takes them all away.

Caring for strangers

Written by Frederick on . Posted in PMC Articles

Just recently I received a great story from my friend Rick Paashaus who serves as pastor of worship at Calvary Bible Fellowship Church in Coopersburg, Pennsylvania.  After a bit of arm-twisting, Rick agreed to let me share his story with you.

Two months ago I was reading through Deuteronomy and kept hitting up against those phrases about “the aliens within your gates.” Kept thinking…yeah, right…Coopersburg [PA]…the only aliens here are those of us who don’t happen to be Pennsylvania Dutch…and maybe one or two black families and one or two adopted Korean kids. But then I went to the diner for lunch and was cared for by a Mexican, saw another Mexican refilling the salad bar, and noticed a Greek immigrant cook on his break. It really got my mind going. Where do these folks live? Who is showing any interest in them? What about the staff of the diner in general, folks who are Greek Orthodox but rarely darken the door of a Church anyway?
My wife and I came up with a plan to invite THEM to a dinner, just to say “thank you.” And they responded. We provided a full course dinner with tablecloths and china and candlelight, and 35+ of the staff from the diner came and enjoyed it immensely. We took some pictures over the past weeks and secreted out some shots from over the years and put together a surprise video before the meal. No preaching. No handouts or signup–just our way of saying thanks and getting to know the staff better. Many of our own people were there to help, serve, mingle, listen. The diner people loved it.  Some were tearful when they arrived and couldn’t stop saying, “I can’t believe you guys would do something like this.” They stayed for three hours and left with containers of leftovers. We even sent 12 dinners over to the staff that had to work and couldn’t attend.  
Don’t know what the results may be–perhaps nothing visible–but at least the server from Mexico who is living above the pizza place while his wife and child remain across the border felt valued and cared for one night. And the waitresses who so often serve us and wait while we linger over a third cup of coffee realized that they were appreciated. It was the right thing to do, and the Lord was glorified without too many words.
There are several points to be made from this story.


  • First, the starting point was a fresh reading of the biblical text from a missional perspective.  By this I mean an interpretive stance which presumes that the unifying theme of Scripture is a narrative about Yahweh, the missionary God, who reconciles the world to himself through the promised Messiah.  This perspective highlights certain points of the text that might otherwise go largely unnoticed; it raises questions that move beyond merely historical or exegetical concern.  Who are the aliens in our community?  What are their greatest needs?  How is the Spirit leading us to extend hospitality to them?


  • Second, a missional reading of the Bible encourages a distinctive way of “seeing” our communities. For many of us life is too busy to allow us to see what God wants to do through us.  Will and Lisa Samson observe that life in the suburbs seems particularly designed to perpetuate our blindness:  “The burbs are safe, but they are safe at the price of keeping out questions of need, questions of poverty, questions of insufficiency.  In fact, they are designed to maintain an illusion of a particular life, the American dream, where no one is needy, where there is a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage….”[1]  Of course the tendency to look past kingdom opportunities is not new.  One thinks for example of the disciples traveling through Samaria with Jesus.  Their concern is with the challenges of the journey and the logistics of finding food.  Jesus, on the other hand, speaks of having food that they know nothing about even as he ministers profoundly to a woman they would as soon look past or disregard (Jn. 4:31-35).  I love Rick’s story because it reminds me that we need to see through the eyes of Jesus.

  • The third observation is that actions speak as loud as or louder than words.   This is especially true in our post-Christian culture.  The church now finds itself playing an away-game.  The fans who watch the game no longer view us as the home team. They are neutral at best and sometimes downright hostile.

David Kinnaman surveyed perceptions of Christians among outsiders to the faith, ages 16-29.  Among the 440 people in the sample, only 10% had a “good impression” of “born-again Christians” and only 3% had a good impression of Evangelical Christians.[2]  In another survey Kinnaman reports that only 20% of outsiders “perceive Christian churches to be loving environments, places where people are unconditionally loved and accepted regardless of how they look or what they do.”[3]

In this context cynicism runs high and words–including gospel words–are regarded with suspicion.  So actions become the metaphors of the gospel.  Not that we never speak.  Words are still necessary, but we have been too much about words–words as theories, words without deeds, or even words with the wrong kind of deeds.  As Hugh Halter and Matt Smay have observed:  “Christianity is now almost impossible to explain, not because the concepts aren’t intelligible, but because the living, moving, speaking examples of our faith don’t line up with the message.  Our poor posture overshadows the most beautiful story and reality the world has ever known.”[4]

Kinnaman talks about the need “to articulate a ‘kinder, gentler’ faith–one that engages people but does not compromise its passion for Jesus or its theological understanding of him.”[5]

What we need right now are churches that put both words and deeds in the service of the mission of God. And we need leaders who can encourage this balance–leaders like my friend Rick who can help us to think more creatively about the opportunities that surround us.

[1] Justice in the Burbs (Baker, 2007), p. 59.
[2] Unchristian (Baker, 2007), p. 25.    
[3] Unchristian, p. 185.
[4] The Tangible Kingdom (Jossey-Bass, 2008), p. 41.
[5] Unchristian, p. 16.


Written by webmeester on . Posted in PMC Articles

There is an age when one teaches what one knows.

But there follows another when one teaches what one does not know…

It comes, maybe now, the age of another experience: that of unlearning..
(Roland Barthes)

These are times of unparalleled opportunity: times of great unrest
and great risk. These are times of great insecurity where “love is now
mingled with grief” (Galadriel in “The Fellowship of the Ring” by Peter

The legacy of Constantine and of the Enlightenment gave us a church
of the center, a church allied with the dominant forms of economic,
intellectual, cultural and social life. This dominant text was marked
by compromise. The church made claims to certainty, but also had to
accept responsibility for certitudes in support of the empire. We ended
with compromise, and rationalization of the Gospel that was “worldly
wisdom,” devoid of life and power. Walter Brueggemann comments that

“We all have a hunger for certitude, and the problem is that the
Gospel is not about certitude, it’s about fidelity… fidelity is a
relational category and certitude is a flat, mechanical category. So we
have to acknowledge our thirst for certitude and then recognize that if
you had all the certitudes in the world it would not make the quality
of your life any better because what we must have is fidelity.” [1]

In this postmodern transition we are increasingly suspicious of the
scripting of reality that has been transmitted to us by a church
immersed in culture. We are becoming aware that the most faithful
expressions of faith are not at the center, but at the margins of
society, and that power subverts faithfulness.

We shouldn’t be surprised; it has always been so. When the
scholastics (represented by Anselm) were busy making dogmatic
formulations, the monastics (represented by Bernard of Clarivaux) were
declaring that love was the only path to knowledge. As the late
medieval period witnessed the full marriage of the State/Church, Peter
Waldo, the Lollards, Wycliffe, Francis and Claire, and others arose,
largely as lay movements (i.e. without the stamp of approval of the
Church/State): the Waldensians, the Lollards, the Brothers of the
Common Life and others.

When Luther stopped short of certain reforms, the radical reformers
kept moving. As the “emergent” church of their day, the Anabaptists
arose on the margins, stepping outside the Constantinian/Christendom
web; they relied on many of the insights of the previously mentioned
groups, especially the Brothers of the Common Life. By then the
Enlightenment was on the rise as the Religious Society of Friends came
on the scene in Great Britain.

From the Anabaptists we learn that God’s kingdom is opposed to the
powers of the world. In Resident Aliens, Hauerwas and Willimon state,
“We are not suggesting that all Christians from 313 to 1963 have been
unfaithful…Moreover, we are aware that from 313 to 1963 many Christians
have found ways to dissent from the coercive measures necessary to
ensure social order in the name of Christ. What we are saying is that
in the twilight of that world, we have an opportunity to discover what
has and always is the case – that the church, as those called out by
God, embodies a social alternative that the world cannot on its own
terms know (pg 17ff).” [2]

From the Center to the Margins

What if the highest destination

of any human life

Was not a place that you could reach if

you had to climb

Wasn’t up above like heaven

So no need to fly at all

What if to reach the highest place

you had to fall

“Fall,” by Peter Mayer, from the CD “Million Year Mind”

As ministry decentralizes.. moves to homes, malls, pubs.. the
internet.. fractal networks and reduced structure… and as we move
away from positions and roles and titles to functional leadership, we
are learning to lead from the margins.

Greater numbers of people are providing leadership today because
they are leading from unusual places. They often lack resources and
formal training, but are willing to risk responding to the call of God
in their lives. They often lack the legitimation of established
structures and well-funded organizations, but they have the approval of

While this movement to the margins is outwardly a shift in
position, it is also a shift in the locus of authority. The choice to
abandon worldly status is clearly articulated by Mark Strom in
“Reframing Paul,” as a call to a new social reality:

Academic, congregational and denominational life functions along
clear lines of rank, status and honour. We preach that the gospel has
ended elitism, but we rarely allow the implications to go beyond ideas.
Paul, however, actually stepped down in the world.

Paul urged leaders to imitate his personal example of how the
message of Jesus inverted status…. He refused to show favoritism
towards individuals or ekklesiai. The gospel offered him rights, but he
refused them. Christ was not a means to a career. Yet the agendas and
processes of maintaining and reforming evangelical life and thought
remain the domain of professional scholars and clergy. Their ministry
is their career.

Dying and rising with Christ meant status reversal. In Paul’s case,
he deliberately stepped down in the world. We must not romanticize this
choice. He felt the shame of it amongst his peers and potential
patrons, yet held it as the mark of his sincerity. IVP 2000

Where once leadership was seen to come from the front, from
appointed persons in defined roles, from paid professionals, and from
the few to the many, now leadership often comes from the one walking
beside us. Instead of the Wizard, it is Dorothy who has wisdom. Instead
of Aragorn or Gandalf, it is Frodo whose obedience may be the fulcrum
for change.

The implication is a relocation of authority and the
disentanglement of leadership from authority. We won’t attempt a
definition of leadership; rather I invite you to come along on a
partnership in discovery. We are searching for wisdom from the margins.

“Fresh expressions of the church will come from the margins of
society, where they will radically reshape both our understanding of
the church and the gospel” [3]

As we live out new ways of leading faithful communities,

  • Instead of leading from over, we lead from among.
  • Instead of leading from certainty, we lead by exploration, cooperation and faith.
  • Instead of leading from power, we lead in emptiness depending on Jesus
  • Instead of leading as managers, we lead as mystics and poets,
    “speaking poetry in a prose flattened world” and articulating a common
  • Instead of leading from the center, we lead from the margins.


  1. Brueggemann, Walter. Source Unknown.
  2. Grenz, S. Beyond Foundationalism. Westminster John Knox Press, 2000.
  3. Van Gelder, Craig. “Response to The Haze of Christendom,” ALLELON.ORG, May, 2004
Article written by Len Hjalmarson ~ 19 April 2006